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Apache 1.3 Tutorial


 









Apache 1.3 Tutorial

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Index Apache 1.3 Tutorial


Apache HTTP Server
Release Notes
Upgrading to Apache 1.3
Apache License
Apache Reference Manual
Search for key words
Compiling and Installing
Starting
Stopping or Restarting
Run-time configuration directives
Modules
Virtual Hosts
Dynamic Shared Object (DSO) support
Handlers
Content negotiation
Special purpose environment variables
The Apache API
Using SetUserID Execution for CGI
Other Notes
Frequently Asked Questions
URL Rewriting Guide
General Performance hints for getting the best performance out of Apache
OS Specific Performance hints to help fine-tune specific platforms
Security tips
Compatibility Notes with NCSA httpd
How do I? documentation
Discussion of the FIN_WAIT_2 problem
Known problems with various clients
Release Notes
New features in Apache 1.3
Overview of New Features in Apache 1.3
Core Enhancements
Dynamic Shared Object (DSO) support
Support for Windows NT/95
Support for NetWare 5.x
Re-organized Sources
Reliable Piped Logs
Performance Improvements
Configuration Enhancements
Unified Server Configuration Files
Continuation Lines in config files
Apache Autoconf-style Interface (APACI)
APache eXtenSion (APXS) support tool
Default Apache directory path changed to /usr/local/apache/
Improved HTTP/1.1-style Virtual Hosts
Include directive
S command line option for debugging vhost setup
Control of HTTP methods
Module Enhancements
Improved mod_negotiation
NEW - Spelling correction module
NEW - Conditional setting of environment variables
NEW - "Magic" MIME-typing
NEW - Unique Request Identifiers
mod_proxy enhancements
Enhanced mod_include string comparisons
ServerRoot relative auth filenames
Enhancements to directory indexing
Less Buffering of CGI Script Output
Regular Expression support for Alias and Redirect
AddModuleInfo directive added to mod_info
Absence of any TransferLog disables logging
Ability to name logging formats
Conditional logging
mod_cern_meta configurable per-directory
New map types for RewriteMap directive
CIDR and Netmask access control
API Additions and Changes
child_init
child_exit
child_terminate
register_other_child
piped_log
scoreboard format changed
set_last_modified split into three
New error logging function: ap_log_error
set_file_slot for config parsing
post_read_request module API
psocket, and popendir
is_initial_req
kill_only_once
alloc debugging code
ap_cpystrn
table_addn, table_setn, table_mergen
construct_url
get_server_name, get_server_port
Change to prototype for ap_bspawn_child and ap_call_exec
ap_add_version_component()
Miscellaneous Enhancements
Port to EBCDIC mainframe machine running BS2000/OSD
AccessFileName Enhancement
HostNameLookups now defaults to "Off"
Double-Reverse DNS enforced
LogLevel and syslog support
Detaching from stdin/out/err
Year-2000 Improvements
Common routines Moving to a Separate Library
New ServerSignature directive
New UseCanonicalName directive
SERVER_VERSION definition abstracted, and server build date added
Including the operating system in the server identity
Support for Netscape style SHA1 encrypted passwords
Compatibility Notes with NCSA's Server
Known Problems in Clients
Trailing CRLF on POSTs
Broken keepalive
Incorrect interpretation of HTTP/1.1 in response
Requests use HTTP/1.1 but responses must be in HTTP/1.0
Boundary problems with header parsing
Multipart responses and Quoted Boundary Strings
Byterange requests
Set-Cookie header is unmergeable
Expires headers and GIF89A animations
POST without Content-Length
JDK 1.2 betas lose parts of responses
Content-Type change is not noticed after reload
MSIE Cookie problem with expiry date in the year 2000
Lynx incorrectly asking for transparent content negotiation
MSIE 4.0 mishandles Vary response header
Module mod_browser
Summary
Directives
BrowserMatch
Syntax: BrowserMatch regex attr1 attr2...
Context: server config
Status: base
Module: mod_browser
Compatibility: Apache 1.2 and above
BrowserMatchNoCase
Syntax: BrowserMatchNoCase regex attr1 attr2...
Context: server config
Status: base
Module: mod_browser
Compatibility: Apache 1.2 and above
Module mod_setenvif
Directives
BrowserMatch
Syntax: BrowserMatch regex envar[=value] [...]
Default: none
Context: server config
Override: none
Status: Base
Module: mod_setenvif
Compatibility: Apache 1.2 and above (in Apache 1.2 this directive was found in the now-obsolete mod_browser module)
BrowserMatchNoCase
Syntax: BrowserMatchNoCase regex envar[=value] [...]
Default: none
Context: server config
Override: none
Status: Base
Module: mod_setenvif
Compatibility: Apache 1.2 and above (in Apache 1.2 this directive was found in the now-obsoletemod_browser module)
SetEnvIf
Syntax: SetEnvIf attribute regex envar[=value] [...]
Default: none
Context: server config
Override: none
Status: Base
Module: mod_setenvif
Compatibility: Apache 1.3 and above; the Request_Protocol keyword and environment-variable matching are only available with 1.3.7 and later
SetEnvIfNoCase
Syntax: SetEnvIfNoCase attribute regex envar[=value] [...]
Default: none
Context: server config
Override: none
Status: Base
Module: mod_setenvif
Compatibility: Apache 1.3 and above
Terms Used to Describe Apache Directives
Directive Terms
Syntax
Default
Context
Override
Status
Module
Compatibility
How Directory, Location and Files sections work
Directives allowed in the sections
How the sections are merged
Notes about using sections
Apache Core Features
Directives
AccessConfig
AccessFileName
AddDefaultCharset
AddModule
AllowOverride
AuthName
AuthType
BindAddress
BS2000Account
ClearModuleList
ContentDigest
CoreDumpDirectory
DefaultType


DocumentRoot
ErrorDocument
ErrorLog


Group
HostNameLookups
IdentityCheck


Include
KeepAlive
KeepAliveTimeout


LimitRequestBody
LimitRequestFields
LimitRequestFieldsize
LimitRequestLine
Listen
ListenBacklog


LockFile
LogLevel
MaxClients
MaxKeepAliveRequests
MaxRequestsPerChild
MaxSpareServers
MinSpareServers
NameVirtualHost
Options
PidFile
Port
require
ResourceConfig
RLimitCPU
RLimitMEM
RLimitNPROC
Satisfy
ScoreBoardFile
ScriptInterpreterSource
SendBufferSize
ServerAdmin
ServerAlias
ServerName
ServerPath
ServerRoot
ServerSignature
ServerTokens
ServerType
StartServers
ThreadsPerChild
ThreadStackSize
TimeOut
UseCanonicalName
User

Apache modules
Core
Core Apache features.
mod_access
Host based access control.
mod_actions Apache 1.1 and later.
Filetype/method-based script execution
mod_alias
Aliases and redirects.
mod_asis
The .asis file handler.
mod_auth
User authentication using text files.
mod_auth_anon
Anonymous user authentication, FTP-style.
mod_auth_db
User authentication using Berkeley DB files.
mod_auth_dbm
User authentication using DBM files.
mod_auth_digest
MD5 authentication (experimental)
mod_autoindex
Automatic directory listings.
mod_browser Apache 1.2.* only
Set environment variables based on User-Agent strings. Replaced by mod_setenvif in Apache 1.3 and up
mod_cern_meta
Support for HTTP header metafiles.
mod_cgi
Invoking CGI scripts.
mod_cookies up to Apache 1.1.1
Support for Netscape-like cookies. Replaced in Apache 1.2 by mod_usertrack
mod_digest
MD5 authentication
mod_dir
Basic directory handling.
mod_dld Apache 1.2.* and earlier
Start-time linking with the GNU libdld. Replaced in Apache 1.3 by mod_so
mod_dll Apache 1.3b1 to 1.3b5 only
Replaced in 1.3b6 by mod_so
mod_env
Passing of environments to CGI scripts
mod_example Apache 1.2 and up
Demonstrates Apache API
mod_expires Apache 1.2 and up
Apply Expires: headers to resources
mod_headers Apache 1.2 and up
Add arbitrary HTTP headers to resources
mod_imap
The imagemap file handler.
mod_include
Server-parsed documents.
mod_info
Server configuration information
mod_isapi
Windows ISAPI Extension support
mod_log_agent
Logging of User Agents.
mod_log_common up to Apache 1.1.1
Standard logging in the Common Logfile Format. Replaced by the mod_log_config module in Apache 1.2 and up
mod_log_config
User-configurable logging replacement for mod_log_common.
mod_log_referer
Logging of document references.
mod_mime
Determining document types using file extensions.
mod_mime_magic
Determining document types using "magic numbers".
mod_mmap_static
Mapping files into memory for faster serving.
mod_negotiation
Content negotiation.
mod_proxy
Caching proxy abilities
mod_rewrite Apache 1.2 and up
Powerful URI-to-filename mapping using regular expressions
mod_setenvif Apache 1.3 and up
Set environment variables based on client information
mod_so Apache 1.3 and up
Experimental support for loading modules (DLLs on Windows) at runtime
mod_speling Apache 1.3 and up
Automatically correct minor typos in URLs
mod_status
Server status display
mod_userdir
User home directories.
mod_unique_id Apache 1.3 and up
Generate unique request identifier for every request
mod_usertrack Apache 1.2 and up
User tracking using Cookies (replacement for mod_cookies.c)
mod_vhost_alias Apache 1.3.7 and up
Support for dynamically configured mass virtual hosting
Module mod_auth_dbm
AuthDBMGroupFile
AuthDBMUserFile
AuthDBMAuthoritative
Module mod_auth
AuthGroupFile
AuthUserFile
AuthAuthoritative
Module mod_mime
Summary
Files with Multiple Extensions
Directives
AddCharset
AddEncoding
AddHandler
AddLanguage
AddType
DefaultLanguage
ForceType
RemoveHandler
SetHandler
TypesConfig
Module mod_negotiation
Type maps
MultiViews
CacheNegotiatedDocs
LanguagePriority
DefaultLanguage, AddEncoding, AddLanguage, AddType, and Option.
Module mod_autoindex
AddAlt
AddAltByEncoding
AddAltByType
AddDescription
AddIcon
AddIconByEncoding
AddIconByType
DefaultIcon
FancyIndexing
HeaderName
IndexIgnore
IndexOptions
IndexOrderDefault
ReadmeName
Module mod_dir
DirectoryIndex
Module mod_include
Enabling Server-Side Includes
Basic Elements
Include Variables
Variable Substitution
Flow Control Elements
XBitHack
Using Server Side Includes for ErrorDocuments
Apache Virtual Host documentation
Virtual Host Support
IP-based Virtual Hosts
Name-based Virtual Hosts
Virtual Host examples for common setups
In-Depth Discussion of Virtual Host Matching
File Descriptor Limits
Dynamically Configured Mass Virtual Hosting
Configuration directives

NameVirtualHost
ServerName
ServerAlias
ServerPath
Issues Regarding DNS and Apache
A Simple Example
Denial of Service
The "main server" Address
Tips to Avoid these problems
Appendix: Future Directions
Setting which addresses and ports Apache uses
BindAddress
Listen
How this works with Virtual Ho
Virtual Hosts, BindAddress directive, Port directive, DNS Issues and section.
Overview of the Apache EBCDIC Port
Design Goals
Technical Solution
Porting Notes
Document Storage Notes
Binary Files
Text Documents
Server Side Included Documents
Apache Modules' Status
Third Party Modules' Status
Security Tips for Server Configuration
Permissions on ServerRoot Directories
Server Side Includes
Non Script Aliased CGI
Script Alias'ed CGI
CGI in general
Stopping users overriding system wide settings...
Protect server files by default
Custom error responses
Custom error responses and redirects
Apache suEXEC Support
CONTENTS
What is suEXEC?
Before we begin.
suEXEC Security Model.
Configuring & Installing suEXEC
Enabling & Disabling suEXEC
Using suEXEC
Debugging suEXEC
Beware the Jabberwock: Warnings & Examples
Module mod_access
allow
allow from env=
deny
deny from env=
order
Satisfy and require
Apache Keep-Alive Support
What is Keep-Alive?
Enabling Keep-Alive Support
KeepAlive
KeepAliveTimeout
When Keep-Alive Is Used
Content Negotiation
About Content Negotiation
Negotiation in Apache
Using a type-map file
Multiviews
The Negotiation Methods
Dimensions of Negotiation
Apache Negotiation Algorithm
Fiddling with Quality Values
Media Types and Wildcards
Variants with no Language
Extensions to Transparent Content Negotiation
Note on hyperlinks and naming conventions
Note on Caching
Module mod_cgi
Summary
CGI Environment variables
CGI Debugging
CGI Logfile Format
Directives
ScriptLog
ScriptLogLength
ScriptLogBuffer
Stopping and Restarting Apache
TERM Signal: stop now
HUP Signal: restart now
USR1 Signal: graceful restart
Appendix: signals and race conditions
Apache name-based Virtual Host Support
IP-based Virtual Host Support
Name-based vs. IP-based virtual hosts
Using non-IP Virtual Hosts
Compatibility with Older Browsers
Starting Apache
Invoking Apache
Command line options
Configuration files
Log files
security warning
pid file
Error log
Transfer log
Apache module mod_proxy
Directives
ProxyRequests
ProxyRemote
ProxyPass
ProxyPassReverse
ProxyBlock
AllowCONNECT
ProxyReceiveBufferSize
NoProxy
ProxyDomain
ProxyVia
CacheRoot
CacheSize
CacheMaxExpire
CacheDefaultExpire
CacheLastModifiedFactor
CacheGcInterval
CacheDirLevels
CacheDirLength
CacheForceCompletion
NoCache
Common configuration topics
Controlling access to your proxy
Using Netscape hostname shortcuts
Why doesn't file type xxx download via FTP?
Why does Apache start more slowly when using the proxy module?
Can I use the Apache proxy module with my SOCKS proxy?
What other functions are useful for an intranet proxy server?
Configuring Multiple IP Addresses
Apache Directives
AccessConfig
AccessFileName
Action
AddAlt
AddAltByEncoding
AddAltByType
AddCharset
AddDefaultCharset
AddDescription
AddEncoding
AddHandler
AddIcon
AddIconByEncoding
AddIconByType
AddLanguage
AddModule
AddModuleInfo
AddType
AgentLog
Alias
AliasMatch
allow
AllowCONNECT
AllowOverride
Anonymous
Anonymous_Authoritative
Anonymous_LogEmail
Anonymous_MustGiveEmail
Anonymous_NoUserID
Anonymous_VerifyEmail
AuthAuthoritative
AuthDBAuthoritative
AuthDBGroupFile
AuthDBMAuthoritative
AuthDBMGroupFile
AuthDBMGroupFile
AuthDBUserFile
AuthDBMUserFile
AuthDigestFile
AuthGroupFile
AuthName
AuthType
AuthUserFile
BindAddress
BrowserMatch
BrowserMatchNoCase
BS2000Account
CacheDefaultExpire
CacheDirLength
CacheDirLevels
CacheForceCompletion
CacheGcInterval
CacheLastModifiedFactor
CacheMaxExpire
CacheNegotiatedDocs
CacheRoot
CacheSize
CheckSpelling
ClearModuleList
ContentDigest
CookieExpires
CookieLog (mod_cookies)
CookieLog (mod_log_config)
CookieTracking
CoreDumpDirectory
CustomLog
DefaultIcon
DefaultLanguage
DefaultType
deny


DirectoryIndex
DocumentRoot
ErrorDocument
ErrorLog
Example
ExpiresActive
ExpiresByType
ExpiresDefault
ExtendedStatus
FancyIndexing


ForceType
Group
Header
HeaderName
HostNameLookups
IdentityCheck


ImapBase
ImapDefault
ImapMenu
Include
IndexIgnore
IndexOptions
KeepAlive
KeepAliveTimeout
LanguagePriority


LimitRequestBody
LimitRequestFields
LimitRequestFieldsize
LimitRequestLine
Listen
ListenBacklog
LoadFile
LoadModule


LockFile
LogFormat
LogLevel
MaxClients
MaxKeepAliveRequests
MaxRequestsPerChild
MaxSpareServers
MetaDir
MetaFiles
MetaSuffix
MimeMagicFile
MinSpareServers
MMapFile
NameVirtualHost
NoCache
Options
order
PassEnv
PidFile
Port
ProxyBlock
ProxyDomain
ProxyPass
ProxyPassReverse
ProxyReceiveBufferSize
ProxyRemote
ProxyRequests
ProxyVia
ReadmeName
Redirect
RedirectMatch
RedirectPermanent
RedirectTemp
RefererIgnore
RefererLog
RemoveHandler
require
ResourceConfig
RewriteBase
RewriteCond
RewriteEngine
RewriteLock
RewriteLog
RewriteLogLevel
RewriteMap
RewriteOptions
RewriteRule
RLimitCPU
RLimitMEM
RLimitNPROC
Satisfy
ScoreBoardFile
Script
ScriptAlias
ScriptAliasMatch
ScriptInterpreterSource
ScriptLog
ScriptLogBuffer
ScriptLogLength
SendBufferSize
ServerAdmin
ServerAlias
ServerName
ServerPath
ServerRoot
ServerSignature
ServerTokens
ServerType
SetEnv
SetEnvIf
SetEnvIfNoCase
SetHandler
StartServers
ThreadsPerChild
TimeOut
TransferLog
TypesConfig
UnsetEnv
UseCanonicalName
User
UserDir

VirtualDocumentRoot
VirtualDocumentRootIP
VirtualScriptAlias
VirtualScriptAliasIP
XBitHack
Module mod_actions
Directives
Action
Script
Module mod_alias
Directives
Alias
AliasMatch
Redirect
RedirectMatch
RedirectTemp
RedirectPermanent
ScriptAlias
ScriptAliasMatch
Module mod_asis
Purpose
Usage
Module mod_auth_anon
Directives
Anonymous
Anonymous_Authoritative
Anonymous_LogEmail
Anonymous_MustGiveEmail
Anonymous_NoUserID
Anonymous_VerifyEmail
Example
Compile Time Options
Module mod_auth_db
AuthDBGroupFile
AuthDBUserFile
AuthDBAuthoritative
Module mod_auth_digest
AuthDigestFile
AuthDigestGroupFile
AuthDigestQop
AuthDigestNonceLifetime
AuthDigestNonceFormat
AuthDigestNcCheck
AuthDigestAlgorithm
AuthDigestDomain
Using Digest Authentication
Apache module mod_cern_meta
MetaFiles
MetaDir
MetaSuffix
Module mod_cookies
CookieLog
Module mod_digest
AuthDigestFile
Using Digest Authentication
Module mod_dld
Directives
LoadFile
LoadModule
Module mod_dll
Creating DLL Modules
Directives
LoadFile
LoadModule
Apache module mod_env
Directives
PassEnv
SetEnv
UnsetEnv
Module mod_example
Using the mod_example Module
Directives
Example
Module mod_expires
Directives
ExpiresActive
ExpiresByType
ExpiresDefault
Alternate Interval Syntax
Module mod_headers
Header
Order of Processing
Module mod_imap
New Features
Configuration Directives
ImapMenu
ImapDefault
ImapBase
Imagemap File
Imagemap File Directives
Values
Coordinates
Quoted Text
Example Mapfile
Referencing your mapfile
Module mod_info
AddModuleInfo
Module mod_isapi
Purpose
Usage
Notes
Module mod_log_agent
AgentLog
Module mod_log_common
Log file format
TransferLog
Module mod_log_config
Compatibility notes
Log File Formats
Common Log Format
Custom Log Formats
Using Multiple Log Files
Use with Virtual Hosts
Security Considerations
CookieLog
CustomLog
CustomLog (conditional)
LogFormat
TransferLog
Module mod_log_referer
Log file format
RefererIgnore
RefererLog
Module mod_mime_magic
Summary
Performance Issues
MimeMagicFile
Notes
Module mod_mmap_static
MMapFile
Module mod_rewrite URL Rewriting Engine
Internal Processing
API Phases
Ruleset Processing
Regex Back-Reference Availability
Configuration Directives
RewriteEngine
RewriteOptions
RewriteLog
RewriteLogLevel
RewriteLock
RewriteMap
RewriteBase
RewriteCond
RewriteRule
Miscellaneous
Environment Variables
Practical Solutions
Module mod_so
LoadFile
LoadModule
Creating DLL Modules for Windows
Module mod_speling
CheckSpelling
Module mod_status
Function
ExtendedStatus directive
Enabling Status Support
Automatic Updates
Machine Readable Status File
Module mod_userdir
UserDir
Module mod_unique_id
Theory
Module mod_usertrack
Logging
CookieExpires
CookieName
CookieTracking
2-digit or 4-digit dates for cookies?
Module mod_vhost_alias
Directory Name Interpolation
Examples
Directives
VirtualDocumentRoot
VirtualDocumentRootIP
VirtualScriptAlias
VirtualScriptAliasIP
Apache's Handler Use
What is a Handler
AddHandler
SetHandler
Programmer's Note
Apache API notes
Basic concepts.
Handlers, Modules, and Requests
A brief tour of a module
How handlers work
A brief tour of the request_rec
Where request_rec structures come from
Handling requests, declining, and returning error codes
Special considerations for response handlers
Special considerations for authentication handlers
Special considerations for logging handlers
Resource allocation and resource pools
Configuration, commands and the like
Per-directory configuration structures
Command handling
Side notes --- per-server configuration, virtual servers, etc.
Using XSSI and ErrorDocument to configure customized international server error responses
Introduction
Creating an ErrorDocument directory
Naming the individual error document files
The common header and footer files
Creating ErrorDocuments in different languages
The fallback language
Customizing Proxy Error Messages
HTML listing of the discussed example
Apache 1.3 URL Rewriting Guide
Introduction to mod_rewrite
Practical Solutions
URL Layout
Canonical URLs
Canonical Hostnames
Moved DocumentRoot
Trailing Slash Problem
Webcluster through Homogeneous URL Layout
Move Homedirs to Different Webserver
Structured Homedirs
Filesystem Reorganisation
NCSA imagemap to Apache mod_imap
Search pages in more than one directory
Set Environment Variables According To URL Parts
Virtual User Hosts
Redirect Homedirs For Foreigners
Redirect Failing URLs To Other Webserver
Extended Redirection
Archive Access Multiplexer
Time-Dependend Rewriting
Backward Compatibility for YYYY to XXXX migration
Content Handling
From Old to New (intern)
From Old to New (extern)
Browser Dependend Content
Dynamic Mirror
Reverse Dynamic Mirror
Retrieve Missing Data from Intranet
Load Balancing
Reverse Proxy
New MIME-type, New Service
From Static to Dynamic
On-the-fly Content-Regeneration
Document With Autorefresh
Mass Virtual Hosting
Access Restriction
Blocking of Robots
Blocked Inline-Images
Host Deny
Proxy Deny
Special Authentication Variant
Referer-based Deflector
Other
External Rewriting Engine
Apache 1.3 Dynamic Shared Object (DSO) Support
Background
Practical Usage
Implementation
Supported Platforms
Usage Summary
Advantages & Disadvantages
Multiple Log Files
Using Multiple Log Files
Syntax: CustomLog filename "format"
Context: server config, virtual host
Status: base
Module: mod_log_config
Use with Virtual Hosts
Examples
Dynamically configured mass virtual hosting
Motivation
Overview
Simple dynamic virtual hosts
A virtually hosted homepages system
Using more than one virtual hosting system on the same server
More efficient IP-based virtual hosting
Using older versions of Apache
Simple dynamic virtual hosts using mod_rewrite
A homepages system using mod_rewrite
Using a separate virtual host configuration file
Apache IP-based Virtual Host Support
System requirements
How to set up Apache
Setting up multiple daemons
Setting up a single daemon with virtual hosts
Virtual Host examples for common setups
Base configuration
IP-based vhosts only
Name-based vhosts only
Mixed name-/IP-based vhosts
Port-based vhosts
Additional features
Using _default_ vhosts
Migrating a named-based vhost to an IP-based vhost
Using the ServerPath directive
An In-Depth Discussion of Virtual Host Matching
Config File Parsing
Virtual Host Matching
Hash table lookup
IP-based vhost
Name-based vhost
Persistent connections
Absolute URI
Observations
Tips
File Descriptor Limits
Apache Miscellaneous Documentation
Configuring & Installing suEXEC
EDITING THE SUEXEC HEADER FILE
COMPILING THE SUEXEC WRAPPER
COMPILING APACHE FOR USE WITH SUEXEC
COPYING THE SUEXEC BINARY TO ITS PROPER LOCATION
Enabling & Disabling suEXEC
Using Apache With Microsoft Windows
Requirements
Downloading Apache for Windows
Installing Apache for Windows (binary install)
Running Apache for Windows
Using Apache for Windows
Running Apache for Windows from the Command Line
Running Apache for Windows as a Service
Signalling Console Apache when running
Signalling Service Apache when running
Compiling Apache for Windows
Descriptors and Apache
BSDI 2.0
FreeBSD 2.2, BSDI 2.1+
Linux
Solaris through 2.5.1
AIX
Others
Apache Server Frequently Asked Questions
The Questions
Background
What is Apache?
Why was Apache created?
How does The Apache Group's work relate to other servers?
Why the name "Apache"?
OK, so how does Apache compare to other servers?
How thoroughly tested is Apache?
What are the future plans for Apache?
Whom do I contact for support?
Is there any more information on Apache?
Where can I get Apache?
General Technical Questions
"Why can't I ...? Why won't ... work? What to do in case of problems"
How compatible is Apache with my existing NCSA 1.3 setup?
Is Apache Year 2000 compliant?
How do I submit a patch to the Apache Group?
Why has Apache stolen my favourite site's Internet address?
Why am I getting spam mail from the Apache site?
May I include the Apache software on a CD or other package I'm distributing?
What's the best hardware/operating system/..
What are "regular expressions"?
Why isn't there a binary for my platform?
Building Apache
Why do I get an error about an undefined reference to "__inet_ntoa" or other __inet_* symbols?
Why won't Apache compile with my system's cc?
Why do I get complaints about redefinition of "struct iovec" when compiling under Linux?
I'm using gcc and I get some compilation errors, what is wrong?
I'm using RedHat Linux 5.0, or some other glibc-based Linux system, and I get errors with the crypt function when I
attempt to build Apache 1.2.
Error Log Messages and Problems Starting Apache
Why do I get "setgid: Invalid argument" at startup?
Why am I getting "httpd: could not set socket option TCP_NODELAY" in my error log?
Why am I getting "connection reset by peer" in my error log?
The errorlog says Apache dumped core, but where's the dump file?
When I run it under Linux I get "shmget: function not found", what should I do?
Server hangs, or fails to start, and/or error log fills with "fcntl: F_SETLKW: No record locks available" or similar messages
Why am I getting "Expected
but saw
" when I try to start Apache?
I'm using RedHat Linux and I have problems with httpd dying randomly or not restarting properly
I upgraded from an Apache version earlier than 1.2.0 and suddenly I have problems with Apache dying randomly or not restarting properly
When I try to start Apache from a DOS window, I get a message like "Cannot determine host name. Use ServerName
directive to set it manually." What does this mean?
When I try to start Apache for Windows, I get a message like "Unable To Locate WS2_32.DLL..."
Configuration Questions
Why can't I run more than virtual hosts?
Can I increase FD_SETSIZE on FreeBSD?
Why doesn't my ErrorDocument 401 work?
Why does Apache send a cookie on every response?
Why don't my cookies work, I even compiled in mod_cookies?
Why do my Java app[let]s give me plain text when I request an URL from an Apache server?
How do I get Apache to send a MIDI file so the browser can play it?
How do I add browsers and referrers to my logs?
Why does accessing directories only work when I include the trailing "/" (e.g., http://foo.domain.com/~user/) but not when
I omit it (e.g., http://foo.domain.com/~user)?
Why doesn't mod_info list any directives?
I upgraded to Apache 1.3 and now my virtual hosts don't work!
I'm using RedHat Linux and my .htm files are showing up as HTML source rather than being formatted!
My .htaccess files are being ignored.
Why do I get a "Forbidden" message whenever I try to access a particular directory?
Dynamic Content (CGI and SSI)
How do I enable CGI execution in directories other than the ScriptAlias?
What does it mean when my CGIs fail with "Premature end of script headers"?
Why do I keep getting "Method Not Allowed" for form POST requests?
How can I get my script's output without Apache buffering it? Why doesn't my server push work?
Where can I find the "CGI specification"?
Why isn't FastCGI included with Apache any more?
How do I enable SSI (parsed HTML)?
Why don't my parsed files get cached?
How can I have my script output parsed?
SSIs don't work for VirtualHosts and/or user home directories
How can I use ErrorDocument and SSI to simplify customized error messages?
Why is the environment variable REMOTE_USER not set?
Authentication and Access Restrictions
Why isn't restricting access by host or domain name working correctly?
How do I set up Apache to require a username and password to access certain documents?
How do I set up Apache to allow access to certain documents only if a site is either a local site or the user supplies a password and username?
Why does my authentication give me a server error?
Do I have to keep the (mSQL) authentication information on the same machine?
Why is my mSQL authentication terribly slow?
Can I use my /etc/passwd file for Web page authentication?
URL Rewriting
Where can I find mod_rewrite rulesets which already solve particular URL-related problems?
Where can I find any published information about URL-manipulations and mod_rewrite?
Why is mod_rewrite so difficult to learn and seems so complicated?
What can I do if my RewriteRules don't work as expected?
Why don't some of my URLs get prefixed with DocumentRoot when using mod_rewrite?
How can I make all my URLs case-insensitive with mod_rewrite?
Why are RewriteRules in my VirtualHost parts ignored?
How can I use strings with whitespaces in RewriteRule's ENV flag?
Features
Does or will Apache act as a Proxy server?
What are "multiviews"?
Why can't I publish to my Apache server using PUT on Netscape Gold and other programs?
Why doesn't Apache include SSL?
How can I attach a footer to my documents without using SSI?
Does Apache include a search engine?
How can I rotate my log files?
Reading Client Input in Apache 1.2
The New API Functions
Connections in the FIN_WAIT_2 state and Apache
What is the FIN_WAIT_2 state?
But why does it happen?
Buggy clients and persistent connections
Mozilla/3.01 (X11; I; FreeBSD 2.1.5-RELEASE i386)
Mozilla/2.02 (X11; I; FreeBSD 2.1.5-RELEASE i386)
Mozilla/3.01Gold (X11; I; SunOS 5.5 sun4m)
MSIE 3.01 on the Macintosh
MSIE 3.01 on Windows 95
A necessary bit of code introduced in 1.2
What can I do about it?
Add a timeout for FIN_WAIT_2
Compile without using lingering_close()
Use SO_LINGER as an alternative to lingering_close()
Increase the amount of memory used for storing connection state
Disable KeepAlive
Feedback
Appendix
Why the lingering close functionality is necessary with HTTP
Apache HOWTO documentation
redirect an entire server or directory to a single URL
reset your log files
stop/restrict robots
proxy SSL requests through your non-SSL server
Why We Took PEM Out of Apache
Yahoo - Science: Mathematics: Security and Encryption
EFF Crypto/Privacy/Security Archive
Crypto page at Quadralay
Cryptography Export Control Archives (Cygnus)
ICLU - Your Rights in Cyberspace
Running a High-Performance Web Server for BSD
Performance Tuning Tips for Digital Unix
Update
Running a High-Performance Web Server for HPUX
Hints on Running a High-Performance Web Server
A/UX (Apple's UNIX)
BSD-based (BSDI, FreeBSD, etc)
Digital UNIX
HPUX
Linux
Solaris
SunOS 4.x
SVR4
Apache Performance Notes
Introduction
Hardware and Operating System Issues
Run-Time Configuration Issues
Compile-Time Configuration Issues
mod_status and ExtendedStatus On
accept Serialization - multiple sockets
accept Serialization - single socket
Lingering Close
Scoreboard File
DYNAMIC_MODULE_LIMIT
Appendix: Detailed Analysis of a Trace
Appendix: Patches Available
Appendix: The Pre-Forking Model
HTTP/1.1 KeepAlive problems with Netscape 3.0
Compiling and Installing Apache 1.3
Downloading Apache
Compiling Apache
Installing Apache
Set your system time properly!
Starting and Stopping the Server
Compiling Support Programs
Upgrading to 1.3 from 1.2
Compile-Time Configuration Changes
Run-Time Configuration Changes
Misc Changes
Third Party Modules
Source Re-organisation
Summary of Changes
Adding Modules
New Facilities for Module Authors
Building a simple source distribution
Adding Compile time Information
Module Definition Information for Binary Distribitions
Using Apache With Novell NetWare 5
Requirements
Downloading Apache for NetWare
Installing Apache for NetWare
Running Apache for NetWare
Using Apache for NetWare
Compiling Apache for NetWare
Installing the Apache 1.3 HTTP Server on TPF
Download
Compilation
Installation
Compiling with VisualAge TPF
Overview of the Apache TPF Port
Apache Configuration Files
What's Available in this Version
Components/modules tested on TPF:
alloc.c
ap_base64.c
ap_checkpass.c
ap_cpystrn.c
ap_fnmatch.c
ap_md5c.c
ap_sha1.c
ap_signal.c
ap_slack.c
ap_snprintf.c
buff.c
buildmark.c
ebcdic.c
gen_test.char.c
gen_uri_delims.c
htpasswd.c (requires PUT10)
http_config.c
http_core.c
http_log.c
http_main.c
http_protocol.c
http_request.c
http_vhost.c
logresolve.c (requires PUT10)
mod_access.c (see note 1)
mod_actions.c
mod_alias.c
mod_asis.c
mod_auth.c
mod_auth_anon.c
mod_autoindex.c
mod_cern_meta.c
mod_cgi.c (requires PUT10)
mod_digest.c
mod_dir.c
mod_env.c
mod_example.c
mod_expires.c
mod_headers.c
mod_imap.c
mod_include.c (see note 2)
mod_info.c
mod_log_agent.c
mod_log_config.c
mod_log_referer.c
mod_mime.c
mod_mime_magic.c
mod_negotiation.c
mod_put.c (third party module)
mod_proxy.c
mod_setenvif.c
mod_speling.c
mod_status.c
mod_tpf_shm_static.c (third party module, requires PUT10)
mod_unique_id.c (requires PUT10)
mod_userdir.c
mod_usertrack.c
os.c
os-inline.c
proxy_cache.c
proxy_connect.c
proxy_ftp.c
proxy_http.c
proxy_util.c
regular expression parser
regular expression test tool (requires PUT10)
rfc1413.c
rotatelogs.c (requires PUT10)
util.c
util_date.c
util_md5.c
util_script.c
util_uri.c
Components/modules not yet supported on TPF:
htdigest.c
lib/expat-lite
mod_auth_digest.c
mod_rewrite.c
mod_vhost_alias.c
Components/modules that don't apply or that probably won't ever be available on TPF
ab.c
ap_getpass.c
mod_auth_db.c
mod_auth_dbm.c
mod_auth_db.module
mod_mmap_static.c
mod_so.c
suexec.c
Porting Notes
Changes made due to differences between UNIX and TPF's process models
Find that function
EBCDIC changes
Miscellaneous, minor changes
Compiling Apache under UnixWare
UnixWare 1.x
UnixWare 2.0.x
UnixWare 2.1.x
Special Purpose Environment Variables
downgrade-1.0
force-no-vary
force-response-1.0
nokeepalive







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